Heart rate variability is a well established and standardized approach for cardiovascular risks assessment, autonomic nervous system monitoring, general adaptation syndrome evaluation and many more.


  1. Hillebrand S, Gast KB, de Mutsert R, et al. Heart rate variability and first cardiovascular event in populations without known cardiovascular disease: meta-analysis and dose-response meta-regression. Europace. 2013;15(5):742-749. doi:10.1093/europace/eus341

  2. Buccelletti E, Gilardi E, Scaini E, et al. Heart rate variability and myocardial infarction: systematic literature review and metanalysis. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2009;13(4):299-307.

  3. La Rovere MT, Pinna GD, Maestri R, et al. Short-term heart rate variability strongly predicts sudden cardiac death in chronic heart failure patients. Circulation. 2003;107(4):565-570. doi:10.1161/01.cir.0000047275.25795.17

  4. Johnston BW, Barrett-Jolley R, Krige A, Welters ID. Heart rate variability: Measurement and emerging use in critical care medicine. J Intensive Care Soc. 2020;21(2):148-157. doi:10.1177/1751143719853744

  5. Liao TW, Lo LW, Lin YJ, et al. Autonomic modulation before and after paroxysmal atrial fibrillation events in patients with ischemic heart disease [published online ahead of print, 2020 May 26]. Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol. 2020;e12767. doi:10.1111/anec.12767

  6. Agliari E, Barra A, Barra OA, Fachechi A, Franceschi Vento L, Moretti L. Detecting cardiac pathologies via machine learning on heart-rate variability time series and related markers. Sci Rep. 2020;10(1):8845. Published 2020 Jun 1. doi:10.1038/s41598-020-64083-4

  7. Chen XM, Fan J, Cheng YJ, Ji CC, Yao FJ, Wu SH. Autonomic Influences Related to Early Repolarization in Patients Without Structural Heart Disease [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 15]. J Cardiovasc Transl Res. 2020;10.1007/s12265-020-10033-4. doi:10.1007/s12265-020-10033-4

  8. Dubey P, Verma M, John NA, Gutch M. Nonlinear parameter of heart rate variability can diagnose early cardiac autonomic neuropathy. J Arrhythm. 2020;36(3):534-536. Published 2020 Mar 18. doi:10.1002/joa3.12328

  9. Fang SC, Wu YL, Tsai PS. Heart Rate Variability and Risk of All-Cause Death and Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Cardiovascular Disease: A Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies [published correction appears in Biol Res Nurs. 2020 Jul;22(3):423-425]. Biol Res Nurs. 2020;22(1):45-56. doi:10.1177/1099800419877442

  10. Thayer JF, Fischer JE. Heart rate variability, overnight urinary norepinephrine, and plasma cholesterol in apparently healthy human adults. Int J Cardiol. 2013;162(3):240-244. doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2011.05.058

  11. Woo MA, Stevenson WG, Moser DK, Middlekauff HR. Complex heart rate variability and serum norepinephrine levels in patients with advanced heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1994;23(3):565-569. doi:10.1016/0735-1097(94)90737-4

Clinical pharmacology

  1. Pei Z, Shi M, Guo J, Shen B. Heart rate variability based prediction of personalized drug therapeutic response: the present status and the perspectives [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 2]. Curr Top Med Chem. 2020;10.2174/1568026620666200603105002. doi:10.2174/1568026620666200603105002


  1. Arroyo-Carmona RE, López-Serrano AL, Albarado-Ibañez A, et al. Heart Rate Variability as Early Biomarker for the Evaluation of Diabetes Mellitus Progress. J Diabetes Res. 2016;2016:8483537. doi:10.1155/2016/8483537

  2. Benichou T, Pereira B, Mermillod M, et al. Heart rate variability in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2018;13(4):e0195166. Published 2018 Apr 2. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0195166

  3. Oliveira EA, Silva AKFD, Christofaro DGD, et al. Influence of Type 1 Diabetes on the Symbolic Analysis and Complexity of Heart Rate Variability in Young Adults. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2018;111(1):94-101. doi:10.5935/abc.20180117

  4. França da Silva AK, Penachini da Costa de Rezende Barbosa M, Marques Vanderlei F, Destro Christofaro DG, Marques Vanderlei LC. Application of Heart Rate Variability in Diagnosis and Prognosis of Individuals with Diabetes Mellitus: Systematic Review. Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol. 2016;21(3):223-235. doi:10.1111/anec.12372

  5. Islam SKMA, Kim D, Lee YS, Moon SS. Association between diabetic peripheral neuropathy and heart rate variability in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2018;140:18-26. doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2018.03.034


  1. Thayer JF, Ahs F, Fredrikson M, Sollers JJ 3rd, Wager TD. A meta-analysis of heart rate variability and neuroimaging studies: implications for heart rate variability as a marker of stress and health. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2012;36(2):747-756. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2011.11.009

  2. Williams DP, Koenig J, Carnevali L, et al. Heart rate variability and inflammation: A meta-analysis of human studies. Brain Behav Immun. 2019;80:219-226. doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2019.03.009

  3. Constantinescu V, Matei D, Constantinescu I, Cuciureanu DI. Cardiac autonomic modulation in drug-resistant epilepsy patients after vagus nerve stimulation therapy [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 18]. Neurol Neurochir Pol. 2020;10.5603/PJNNS.a2020.0044. doi:10.5603/PJNNS.a2020.0044

  4. Jung HW, Kim HY, Kim JY, et al. Autonomic Dysfunction is Associated with Increased Cardiometabolic Risk in Patients with Childhood-Onset Craniopharyngioma [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 8] [published correction appears in Horm Metab Res. 2020 Jun 16;:]. Horm Metab Res. 2020;10.1055/a-1169-0307. doi:10.1055/a-1169-0307

  5. Koenig J, Falvay D, Clamor A, et al. Pneumogastric (Vagus) Nerve Activity Indexed by Heart Rate Variability in Chronic Pain Patients Compared to Healthy Controls: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Pain Physician. 2016;19(1):E55-E78.

  6. Liu Q, Wang EM, Yan XJ, Chen SL. Autonomic functioning in irritable bowel syndrome measured by heart rate variability: a meta-analysis. J Dig Dis. 2013;14(12):638-646. doi:10.1111/1751-2980.12092

  7. Holzman JB, Bridgett DJ. Heart rate variability indices as bio-markers of top-down self-regulatory mechanisms: A meta-analytic review. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2017;74(Pt A):233-255. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.12.032


  1. Kobayashi H, Motoki N, Yokota S, et al. Heart rate variability in the course of chemotherapy and haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for peadiatric patients with haematological malignancies [published online ahead of print, 2020 May 29]. Cardiol Young. 2020;1-8. doi:10.1017/S1047951120001298

  2. Zhou X, Ma Z, Zhang L, et al. Heart rate variability in the prediction of survival in patients with cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Psychosom Res. 2016;89:20-25. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2016.08.004


  1. Chalmers JA, Quintana DS, Abbott MJ, Kemp AH. Anxiety Disorders are Associated with Reduced Heart Rate Variability: A Meta-Analysis. Front Psychiatry. 2014;5:80. Published 2014 Jul 11. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2014.00080

  2. Berntson GG, Bigger JT Jr, Eckberg DL, et al. Heart rate variability: origins, methods, and interpretive caveats. Psychophysiology. 1997;34(6):623-648. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8986.1997.tb02140.x

  3. Koch C, Wilhelm M, Salzmann S, Rief W, Euteneuer F. A meta-analysis of heart rate variability in major depression. Psychol Med. 2019;49(12):1948-1957. doi:10.1017/S0033291719001351

  4. Zhang Y, Zhou B, Qiu J, Zhang L, Zou Z. Heart rate variability changes in patients with panic disorder. J Affect Disord. 2020;267:297-306. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2020.01.132

  5. Kim HG, Cheon EJ, Bai DS, Lee YH, Koo BH. Stress and Heart Rate Variability: A Meta-Analysis and Review of the Literature. Psychiatry Investig. 2018;15(3):235-245. doi:10.30773/pi.2017.08.17

  6. Brown L, Karmakar C, Gray R, Jindal R, Lim T, Bryant C. Heart rate variability alterations in late life depression: A meta-analysis. J Affect Disord. 2018;235:456-466. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2018.04.071

  7. Bustamante-Sánchez Á, Clemente-Suárez VJ. Psychophysiological Response to Disorientation Training in Different Aircraft Pilots [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 18]. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2020;10.1007/s10484-020-09478-9. doi:10.1007/s10484-020-09478-9

  8. Brinkmann AE, Press SA, Helmert E, Hautzinger M, Khazan I, Vagedes J. Comparing Effectiveness of HRV-Biofeedback and Mindfulness for Workplace Stress Reduction: A Randomized Controlled Trial [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 18]. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2020;10.1007/s10484-020-09477-w. doi:10.1007/s10484-020-09477-w

  9. Di Bello M, Carnevali L, Petrocchi N, Thayer JF, Gilbert P, Ottaviani C. The compassionate vagus: A meta-analysis on the connection between compassion and heart rate variability [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 15]. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2020;S0149-7634(20)30443-7. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2020.06.016

  10. Rubaltelli E, Priolo G, Scrimin S, Moscardino U. Media Exposure to Terrorism and Perception of Immigrants as a Threat: The Role of Emotional Intelligence and Psychophysiological Self-Regulation [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 15]. Risk Anal. 2020;10.1111/risa.13498. doi:10.1111/risa.13498

  11. da Estrela C, McGrath J, Booij L, Gouin JP. Heart Rate Variability, Sleep Quality, and Depression in the Context of Chronic Stress [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 11]. Ann Behav Med. 2020;kaaa039. doi:10.1093/abm/kaaa039

  12. Abdelall ES, Eagle Z, Finseth T, et al. The Interaction Between Physical and Psychosocial Stressors. Front Behav Neurosci. 2020;14:63. Published 2020 May 14. doi:10.3389/fnbeh.2020.00063

  13. Uhlig S, Meylan A, Rudolph U. Reliability of short-term measurements of heart rate variability: Findings from a longitudinal study [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 4]. Biol Psychol. 2020;107905. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2020.107905

  14. Nelson BW, Sheeber L, Pfeifer J, Allen NB. Psychobiological markers of allostatic load in depressed and nondepressed mothers and their adolescent offspring [published online ahead of print, 2020 May 21]. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2020;10.1111/jcpp.13264. doi:10.1111/jcpp.13264

  15. Watford TS, Braden A, O'Brien WH. Resting state heart rate variability in clinical and subthreshold disordered eating: A meta-analysis [published online ahead of print, 2020 May 21]. Int J Eat Disord. 2020;10.1002/eat.23287. doi:10.1002/eat.23287

  16. Ge F, Yuan M, Li Y, Zhang W. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Alterations in Resting Heart Rate Variability: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Psychiatry Investig. 2020;17(1):9-20. doi:10.30773/pi.2019.0112

  17. Minassian A, Maihofer AX, Baker DG, et al. Association of Predeployment Heart Rate Variability With Risk of Postdeployment Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Active-Duty Marines. JAMA Psychiatry. 2015;72(10):979-986. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2015.0922

Sport medicine

  1. Sandercock GR, Bromley PD, Brodie DA. Effects of exercise on heart rate variability: inferences from meta-analysis. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37(3):433-439. doi:10.1249/01.mss.0000155388.39002.9d

  2. Calleja-Romero A, López-Laval I, Sitko S, et al. Effects of a 75Km mountain ultra-marathon on heart rate variability in amateur runners [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 18]. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2020;10.23736/S0022-4707.20.10860-0. doi:10.23736/S0022-4707.20.10860-0

  3. Hung CH, Clemente FM, Bezerra P, et al. Post-Exercise Recovery of Ultra-Short-Term Heart Rate Variability after Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test and Repeated Sprint Ability Test. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(11):E4070. Published 2020 Jun 7. doi:10.3390/ijerph17114070